The best way to do this would be by following this guide: Email Auto-Response - Marketo Docs - Product Docs
The exception is during Flow Steps in Step 5 Use Add Choice in a Flow Step - Marketo Docs - Product Docs where you add choice based on the product response received.
Q should be in Products, not Marketing Central (MC is more for theory than product/implementation questions).
The answer is: yes. But I wouldn't use the term "segment" because that literally refers to a feature that you shouldn't use in this case. (Segments within a segmentation are mutually exclusive, so they are not usually the right place to store product interests, which are many-to-one with leads.)
You can add the leads to Programs based on their responses, then set the AR to go out based on Program Status was Changed. Or, on a more basic level, you can just use the field value as the constraint in a Filled Out Form trigger (but that is more transient).