The article you referenced requires you to build out the fields and populate them in SFDC first. If you aren't sure how to do that, contact an SFDC Admin or SFDC Developer.
In SFDC you have to create formula fields on Account object.
In SFDC you to click on Setup-> Customize -> Account -> New field type will be formula.
All the field you mentioned above are standard field except title and phone.
Formula will be : $User.Phone
Same way you can create formula field on account for "Job Title".
Once formula field sync back to marketo , You can use token as you mentionin Marketo.
You can also achieve this via email scripting: http://developers.marketo.com/documentation/email-scripting/
I reached your post as I was trying to achieve the same. However the solution posted here does not work for me. On the Salesforce side it looks fine the new custom field (Account Owner Title) takes the value of the logged in User. However, When I try to send a template with MSI (Marketo Sales Insight) it takes the logged in user as "Marketo Interface" - API user through which Salesforce and Marketo communicate
Did you get it correct. If yes, could you share you experience with me to resolve it at my end