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There are various techniques you can use and combine:
A date field, as you mentioned. You always can use the "data value changed" filter with some constraints to identify some dates.
A score field that you will increment (+1) each time a transaction occurs. That will give you a counter that you can query very rapidly.
A text area field in which you can store transactions records in a JSON format. You will be able to store there more details, including the date, but also some values about the transaction itself, similarly to a custom object. Search the community for "json field", and you will find some interesting things on how to set and use them.