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It's first necessary to understand how Marketo determines the active record when duplicates exist. See this post for more detail: Re: If duplicate leads are an issue, be aware of how Marketo determines which lead is active
When dealing with communication limits, the limits are applied to individual records - not per email address. So assuming you send emails in batch, Marketo will only send to one of the email addresses and will consider the lead record that is the oldest (the one created first) as the active record. Unless you're using some advanced filters to only pull in the alternate/duplicate lead record, then based on this, you're assured that firstname.lastname@example.org will only receive 1 email per day and 3 max, over a 7 day period.