I think you'll be hard-pressed to get this to work across all variations/clients out there. Litmus has been doing some interesting things, like embedded quizzes but when I tried to do it, it didn't work in Gmail (epic fail for me).
There won't be any functionality you can do that won't require a link-click. You could pass data from email to hidden fields on a landing page, but you won't be able to capture data from the email without the explicit click.
The only thing that's close to that is something like Delighted, which puts the NPS survey in the email. But it still takes them to a confirmation page where they can add more info to explain their rating.