GA doesn't do anything magical here. It's simply storing external referrer (when available -- make sure you are running https:// for highest availability) and interesting pageview characteristics across pageviews. In their case, data is stored both on Google servers and in local storage (cookies), but you can do it quite well with cookies alone, since in a Marketo context you are looking at information after conversion.
All of this can be done with sophisticated enough JS code and a developer who understands the ins and outs of navigation behavior.
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If I understand your question correctly, I think there are two distinct parts.
1) How do I accurately capture web based traffic correctly and assign lead source as the example you described above?
2) How do I capture lead source for other types of activity that are not from the website either through other digital means or live events?
In regards to the first question, there is a JS that I have used that cookies the URL parameter so that the information will pass through with the initial referral information. See this articleUTM Tracking & Marketo – Part Deux
In regards to other sources, I have created a global lead source assignment program and using a combination of the following fields, slotted folks into the right lead source. Specifically for offline, I look at the acquisition program and the channel that it is in to determine what the source is. For example, if Jane Doe is acquired by program is any and has a member status of Tradeshow>Visited Booth (or any of the other relevant progression statuses) lead source = Tradeshow and so forth. Some other useful fields are Original Referrer. Original Source Type, Registration Type. These are all system fields in Marketo and can provide information to slot the people into the correct lead source.