No, only future activity will be synced.
If you have used Interesting Moments to capture the same data, it will be viewable historically on the record.
You could run a batch for each one to push such activities over.
In general, using this feature is not recommended due to the space it takes up.
Sales Insight will show historical activity. It downloads that real-time from Marketo, so it's not stored in SFDC.
If you have not recorded Interesting Moments in the past, or if you need to run reports on these activities in SFDC, then you could sync your past Marketo Programs to Salesforce Campaigns, and use Campaign Membership status as a record of past activities.