I think you can do testing on this before you send the email, Email on Acid (https://www.emailonacid.com) does this: https://www.emailonacid.com/spam-testing or Litmus (https://litmus.com) can do the same - https://litmus.com/spam-filter-tests.
Both are paid services but I think they will help.
Not sure if you can report on what happens on the actual Email Client, but the above will help deliverability.
Some spam systems will bounce your email, in which case you will know. Most will not, as they do not want to alert spammers. So, no it's not possible to get any kind of reliable information on this.
You can also do some guessing: if an email has a sudden drop in open rates, compared to others, it MIGHT be because this emails has been send to spam boxes.
Prevention is really the only way of looking at it, as recommended by Frank. Complimentary to testing using Litmus, emailOnAcid, or Marketo Email deliverability option, you can also consider A/B testing if you have some doubts.
These are all good things to consider, but for a specific email you actually send (not a test), you can do this:
Email Bounced IS X and Bounced Reason IS NOT EMPTY.
There are lists of bounce codes, but they aren't 100% consistent. What you can do though is look through Bounced for "spam" "policy" and "rejected" because that means your email was blocked as Spam.
Now, if the email got past the server filter, it will hit the lead's email box, which may STILL send it to Junk and you would never know. Litmus and EmailonAcid help you understand if specific emails+your reputation are going to Spam boxes (not bounced) X% of the time. But since it is a single test, or several over time, I don't believe it is conclusive. Directional yes. These tools give you an idea of what may be causing you to go to Spam (coding, inconsistent domains, words, reputation).