This is so strange! I will look into it more with this template but here is what I get in both Litmus and when I test on Windows 10 / Outlook 2016. All you did was replace the image? No other changes to the code?
Have you been able to figure anything out? Just to confirm, no changes to the code. The image I posted at 11am is sending the template with no changes. Again, this is windows 10 enterprise and outlook 2016. Litmus doesn't offer that testing combination to me, just outlook 2016 on windows 7. Maybe you have access to something more advanced.
I tried every rendering tool! I was using Litmus + emailonacid + 250ok
I also personally tested on a physical Windows 10 machine with Outlook 2016 and I am still seeing this:
Fear not, though! Perhaps you can send me an email including your marketo subscription prefix (or munchkin ID) and a link to the email you are testing so we can see exactly what's happening.